RABIES IN DOGS AND CATS AND THE INFORMATION AND EPIDEMIOLOGY IMPORTANT TO PEOPLE – PART II – The next section, let’s PetHealth learn more about rabies in animals. Read together, and there are ways to avoid the best for his pet okay!
IX. Rabies in animals
1. Species affected
All mammals are susceptible to rabies. There are many strains of the virus of rabies; each strain is maintained in (the) host reservoir specific. The host critical maintenance, including members of the Canidae (dogs, jackals, wolves, prairie dogs, wolves, foxes and dogs raccoon), Mustelidae (skunks, martens, mink and manure), Viverridae (mongooses and meerkats) and Procyonidae (raccoons), and Chiroptera (Bats). Haven’t seen the variant rabies adapted to cats, although cats are often infected with rabies from other animals other home and they can easily transmit the virus.
2. Incubation period
The incubation period varies with the number of virus is transmitted, strain, position, bite (bite near the top there is the incubation period is shorter), the immunity of the host and the nature of the wound.
– In dogs and cats, the incubation period ranges from 10 days to 6 months; most of the cases become apparent between 2 weeks and 3 months.
– In cattle, the incubation period from 25 August to more than 5 months have been recorded in rabies of bat transmitted.
3. Clinical signs
– Clinical signs initially often nonspecific and can include anxiety, restlessness, anorexia, or increased appetite, vomiting, slight fever, dilated pupils, increased salivation.
– The first sign of rabies is often limp in the legs have the location infections. Animals often have changes in behavior and temperament, and can become aggressive or affectionate unusual. These signs usually lasts from 2 to 5 days, and can be followed by a phase in which rabies can list or crazy dominant.
– Form of rabies paralysis (“dumb”) is characterized by paralysis progresses. In this form, the throat and the muscles of the paralyzed; the animal may not be able to swallow, and it can flow more saliva. Can paralysis of the face or behind the lower jaw. Format rabies paralysis can begin with a period, blowjob, short or does not happen. The bite is not popular. Death usually occurs within 2 to 6 days due to respiratory failure
– Form of anger are related to infection system, limbic, and is the form primarily in cats. It is characterized by restlessness, wandering, howling, polypnea, drooling and attack animals, people or inanimate. Animals have this form usually swallow foreign objects such as sticks, stones, straw, or manure. Seizures can occur, especially in the late stages. Animals usually die from 4 to 8 days after the onset of clinical signs.
– Clinical signs, in fact quite complex, and it can be difficult to distinguish shapes, crazy and shape dumb. The signs most reliable is to change behavior, and paralysis of unknown etiology. In a number of cases in cats, there is no change in behavior is noticed and the disease seems to start as loss of control or weak hind limb, then the paralysis gradually increase.
– Paralysis of the larynx can cause changes in the voice, including roar abnormalities in cattle or howling husky in dogs.
4. Laboratory diagnosis of Rabies in animals
– In animals, the virus of rabies is usually determined by the method of immunofluorescence in the template brain is taken when gangrenous. This Virus can also be found in other tissues such as salivary glands, the skin (hair follicles on the face, tactile) and the stain spread the cornea, but the detection less efficient. Immunofluorescence can determine 98-100% of cases due to all the genotypes of rabies and viruses related to rabies causes and most effective on the fresh sample.
– Other tests to detect the virus, including immunohistochemical and tests absorb immune enzyme-linked (ELISAs).
– RT PCR is also useful, especially when small samples (e.g., saliva) or when large number of samples must be tested in an outbreak or epidemiological survey.
– Serology is sometimes used to check the transformation serum in domesticated animals before traveling internationally or in the vaccination campaign, the wildlife. It is rarely useful for the diagnosis of clinical cases, because the host usually dies before developing antibodies. The test serum includes tests neutralize the virus and ELISA. There are a number of cross-reactivity between virus rabies and viruses related to rabies
5. Treatment of Rabies in animals
Can’t treatment once clinical signs appear. Very little research has been published about the process of vaccination after exposure for animals and the process is often regarded as inevitable as they can increase the likelihood of exposure of humans. The world, the prophylactic treatment after exposure to animals has not endorsed and is not recommended. Prophylactic treatment after exposure for cattle and livestock, use of vaccine is commercially licensed for this purpose, is made in some Asian countries
6. Prevention of Rabies in animals
– Can prevent rabies in pets by vaccination and avoid contact with wild animals suffering from rabies.
– Prevent animals roaming will reduce the risk of exposure to wild animals suffering from rabies.
– To prevent the transmission of rabies to people or other animals (as well as to prevent the preventive measures not necessary in those who have been exposed). In addition, they can be strict isolation for 6 months, with the vaccinations for dogs, cats and ferrets when started cups or 1 month before release. Cattle, rabbits and other animals are quarantined but not necessarily vaccination.
– Animals that have been vaccinated must be re-strains and locked up under the track at least 45 days. The animals expired vaccination is evaluated according to each specific case. The dogs, cats do not have symptoms had bitten someone (no history of exposure to rabies) is observed for 10 days; if the animal develops signs of rabies during this time, it will be anesthetized and tested for rabies