RABIES IN DOGS AND CATS AND THE INFORMATION AND EPIDEMIOLOGY IMPORTANT TO PEOPLE – PART I

RABIES IN DOGS AND CATS AND THE INFORMATION AND EPIDEMIOLOGY IMPORTANT TO PEOPLE – PART I

I. the importance of rabies in dogs and cats

Rabies is a neurological disease of mammals, almost always fatal once clinical signs develop. Humans are usually infected when an infected animal bites or contact with saliva or tissues of the central nervous system (CNS).

Rabies can be treated effectively if the exposure be aware before symptoms develop.

RABIES IN DOGS AND CATS AND THE INFORMATION AND EPIDEMIOLOGY IMPORTANT TO PEOPLE – PART I
RABIES IN DOGS AND CATS AND THE INFORMATION AND EPIDEMIOLOGY IMPORTANT TO PEOPLE – PART I

II. Cause Rabies in dogs and cats

Rabies is a result of Virus infection with Rabies, a virus removal nerves belonging to the genus Lyssavirus, they Rhabdoviridae. There are many strains of the Virus of Rabies; each strain is maintained in the intermediate host specific. Although these Viruses can easily cause Rabies in other species, but they often die in the process of moving to the serial in those species in which they are not adapted.

The Lyssavirus are intimately linked with each other, including Lyssavirus related to Rabies and Lyssavirus not related to Rabies, can cause a neurological disease similar to Rabies.

III. The transmission of rabies in dogs and cats

Virus rabies is transmitted easily between the species of mammals, whether they are the same species or other species. This Virus is usually spread in the saliva when an infected animal bites another one.

Less often, but still capable of animals or people become infected by contact with saliva or nerve tissue has been infected, the pathogen through mucous membranes or lacerations on the skin. Virus rabies is not transmitted through the intact skin.

There are also rare reports of transmission through other avenues. A number of cases have been reported after transplantation of organs, especially of the cornea, pancreas, kidneys, and liver.

1. The process of transmission of the Virus of Rabies in the body

Immediately after infection, Viruses, Weeds, step on the stage of refuge, when it does not easily detected. In this period, it is re-created in the non-nervous as muscle. It usually does not stimulate the immune response at this point, but it is neutral if there are antibodies.

After a few days or a few months, the virus enters the peripheral nerves and is transported to the central nervous system by reverse flow in the fiber axis.

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After increasing the number of energy throughout the central nervous system, where the clinical signs develop when the nerve cells are infected, the virus is distributed to the tissues inside the body through peripheral nerves. Most viruses are found in nervous tissue, salivary glands, saliva and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), all of which must be handled with extreme caution.

Some virus has also been detected in other tissues and organs, including the lungs, adrenal glands, kidneys, bladder, heart, ovaries, testes, prostate, pancreas, intestine, cornea, stem cells of hair follicles in the skin, sebaceous glands, tongue papillae and brown fat of the bat.

Organ transplants also raises the risk of infection, but very rarely, if the donor is not known to have been infected with rabies. Blood, urine and feces is not considered to be a source of infection; however, a number of studies have suggested that viremia may occur at some point during the infection.

2. Cycle epidemiology

Rabies is maintained in two cycles and epidemiology, is a cycle due to urbanization and a is cycle symbiosis. In the cycle of rabies due to urbanization, the dog is the host containing the disease itself. The epidemiology of this cycle is very complex; the factors that influence it, including strain, the behavior of the species of the host, ecological and environmental factors. In any ecosystem, and how often one and sometimes have up to 3 species of wild animal is responsible for maintaining a rabies-specific.

IV. Sterilizing virus Rabies in dogs and cats

– Virus rabies can be inactivated by solvent lipid (soap solution, ether, chloroform, acetone), 1% sodium hypochlorite, 2% glutaraldehyde, 45-75% ethanol, the preparations of iodine, quaternary ammonium compound, formaldehyde or low pH.

– The Virus is also sensitive to ultraviolet radiation or temperature 1 hour at 50°C. It is quickly inactivated under the sunlight, and it does not survive for long periods in the environment, except in the cool dark.

V. Infection of Rabies in humans

1. Incubation period

In humans, the incubation period ranges from several days to several years. Most cases become apparent after 1 to 3 months. In one study, about 4-10% of cases have an incubation period of from 6 months and up.

irus Rabies in dogs and cats
irus Rabies in dogs and cats

2. Clinical signs

The initial symptoms may include non-specific signs such as malaise, fever or headache, pain, itching, or change in sensation at the location of virus intrusion.

After a few days, appearance, signs of anxiety, confusion and agitation, and evolution of insomnia, abnormal behavior, hypersensitivity to light and sound, delirium, hallucinations, paralysis, mild or in part, drooling, difficulty swallowing, spasms of the pharynx when exposed to liquid and seizures. Can is a form of brain disorder (angry) with the ability to arousal dysfunction and symptoms afraid of water, or as a paralytic (dumb) characterized by paralysis of the entire body prevails. Death usually occurs within 2 to 10 days; survival is extremely rare.

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3. Possibility of transmission to others

Saliva of the person who contains a virus Rabies. The transmission from person to person theoretically is possible, but rare. The activity can cause the risk of exposure include biting, kissing, or direct exposure difference between saliva and mucous membranes or skin, stretch marks, sexual activity, and shared eating utensils or cigarettes. People don’t know who can remove virus, how long before becoming symptomatic; medical Society international recommends preventive treatment after exposure to any one risk contact with a person in the 14 days before the start of the clinical signs.

Medical society international also recommends preventive treatment after injury by needle or other sharp object, in the process of autopsy or in the process of patient care by having the ability to harness has to go through neural tissue. Stool, blood, urine and other body fluids are safer.

A few cases of transmission have been reported in cases of corneal transplantation or transplantation of internal organs

VI. Laboratory diagnosis of Rabies in dogs and cats

Usually need more than one test to diagnose Rabies on the living body because the virus is not always present in any tissue outside the central nervous system. Rabies is usually not detectable in the incubation period and infection with pathogens also can be difficult to diagnose as the clinical signs first appear. In some cases, could not be isolated virus Rabies even when the antigen or nucleic acid is detected by other methods.

Diagnosed with patterns on the body alive may include:

– Detection of antigens or nucleic acid

– Virus isolation or serology

– RT PCR or immunofluorescence can detect nucleic acid or antigen of the virus in saliva, or in the skin biopsy taken from the nape.

– In the skin, the virus appeared in the nerves of the skin at the base of hair follicles.

– Virus rabies sometimes be found in the cornea or the eye wash

– RT-PCR can sometimes detect nucleic acid in cerebrospinal fluid.

– Virus isolation is useful in the diagnosis before or after slaughter. Virus weeds can sometimes be isolated from saliva, conjunctivitis, fluids / water eyes, the impression of the cornea, skin biopsy, or (less often) cerebrospinal fluid in patients with life, and from the brain during an autopsy.

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– Tumor cells raw nerve cells (MNA) of the mouse and the cell line can be used to recover virus.

VII. Method of treatment of Rabies in dogs and cats

– Preventive treatment exposure to toxins, including cleaning and disinfection of the wound immediately, then the rabies vaccination and the use of immunoglobulins rabies in humans. Rabies vaccine is administered 5 doses and it is often intramuscular injection in the arm.

– Prevention of exposure is highly effective if started immediately after exposure. No method of effective treatment once the symptoms develop. Ago’ve tried the Vaccines, antiviral drugs such as ribavirin, interferon-alpha, virus antibody against rabies (immunoglobulins in humans or monoclonal antibodies), ketamine and / or cause coma, but usually not effective.

– The treatment is usually palliative and potentially very high is the result without success. A patient recovering well be treated with ribavirin and supportive care including the onset of coma therapy. If treatment is successful in maintaining the life, there may be other neurological defects permanent and can be serious.

VIII. Prevention of Rabies for humans and animals

– Pet animals (especially dogs, cats and ferrets taste) should be vaccinated to avoid getting infected and transmit rabies to people. Stray animals should also be controlled. In particular, dogs play a role as reservoirs for a variant of virus, rabies in dogs. Cats are susceptible to rabies, but a variation specificity of cats does not occur in cats.

– Wild animals unusual activity should especially avoid. Avoid contact with Bats. In some areas, wild animals be vaccinated orally, drug use, shape the mix into food.

– Veterinarians and staff, animal control should handle the animals have the ability to rabid a caution. Should wear protective clothing such as thick rubber gloves, goggles and aprons made of plastic or rubber when autopsy or in other cases as possible in contact with the tissue infection.

– The bite or wound other exposure should be reported immediately. Prophylactic treatment after exposure, including cleaning and disinfection of the wound immediately, rabies vaccination and use of immunoglobulins rabies in humans.

– The dog, cat for, although no symptoms but was biting people, they must be observed for 10 days; if the animal develops symptoms of rabies during this time, it will be tested for rabies.

– Those who have been vaccinated still need to be preventive treatment after exposure, but the vaccination eliminates the requirement of immunoglobulins rabies and reduce the number of vaccination after exposure. It can also provide some measure of protection for those exposed is not clear, or strengthen immunity if the prophylactic treatment after exposure is delayed.

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